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Archive for October, 2012

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Part II

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• ARMY TRAINING FILM:

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PRIVATE:

“Listen to what my mom said about how bad things are back home:

(Reading from a letter) ‘Everybody’s hoarding. Profiteers are getting fat contracts. Neighbors say politicians are using the war to their own advantage. All our chief atomic scientists are spies.’

And a lot more.”

SERGEANT:

“Now just take it with a grain of salt. Let me tell you how the commies plant propaganda back home. Some time ago, Mack, Johnny and I managed to get our last leave together in a big city…

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(Flashback to the past)

COMMUNIST SYMPATHIZER:

(Preaching on a street corner, pointing) “These poor boys will shed their innocent blood in a war that this country is provoking.”

AIR FORCE AIRMAN;

(Referring to the speaker) “Get a load of that!”

COMMUNIST SYMPATHIZER:

“Asiatic people all want the peaceful establishment of native regimes without the interference of United States troops. Communists don’t want war. War would be world suicide. Only communist countries can guarantee you peace!”

NAVY SAILOR:

“Why don’t you go live in a communist country then?”

AIR FORCE AIRMAN;

“You blow your top on a street corner there?”

NAVY SAILOR:

“You look pretty well off, sister, to be tearing down the country that gives you freedom of speech.””

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• “I’M NO COMMUNIST” (Song by Carson Robison [1952])

            We’re living in a country that’s the finest place of earth

            But some folks don’t appreciate this land that gave them birth

            I hear that up in Washington they’re having an awful fuss

            ‘Cause Communists and spies are making monkeys out of us.”

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• FILM FROM HUAC (HOUSE UN-AMAERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE)

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HUAC hearings circa 1952

CHAIRMAN:

“The question is, ‘Have you ever been a member of the communist party?’ You refuse to answer, is that correct?”

 

MAN GIVING TESTIMONY:

“I have told you I will tell my beliefs, my affiliations, and everything  else to the American public and they will know where I stand as they do from what I have written.”

CHAIRMAN:

“Stand away from the stand!”

MAN GIVING TESTIMONY:

“I have written for Americanism for many years, and I shall continue to fight for the Bill of Rights…”

CHAIRMAN:

“STAND AWAY FROM THE STAND! Officer, take this man away from the stand.”

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• “I’M NO COMMUNIST” [continued] (Song by Carson Robison [1952])

            “The bureaus and departments have been busy night and day

            They’re figuring out just how we gave our secrets all away

            And Congress has appointed a committee so they said

            To find out who’s American and who’s a low-down Red.”

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Hollowed out pumpkin supposedly used by communist infiltrators to pass secret documents, messages, etc.

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• FILM OF RICHARD NIXON REGARDING COMMUNIST SPIES

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Then Vice President (later President) Richard M. Nixon (January 9, 1913– April 22, 1994) was a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) during the 1950s and helped break the Alger Hiss spying case.

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RICHARD NIXON:           

“I’m holding in my hand a microfilm of very highly confidential secret State Department documents. These documents were fed out of the State Dept. over 10 years ago by communists who were employees of that department and who were interested in seeing that these documents were sent to the Soviet Union where the interests of the Soviet Union happened to be in conflict with those of the United States.”

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• “I’M NO COMMUNIST” [continued] (Song by Carson Robison [1952])

            “I’m no Communist, and I’ll you that right now

            I believe a man should own his own house and car and cow

            I like this private ownership, and I want to be left alone

            Let the government run its business and let me run my own.”

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• FILM OF SENATOR OWEN BREWSTER ON COMMUNIST SPYING

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Ralph Owen Brewster (February 22, 1888 – December 25, 1961) was an American politician from Maine. Brewster, a Republican, was solidly conservative. Brewster was a close confidant of the infamous communist hunter Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin.

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OWEN BREWSTER:

“Our education is proceeding apace as to how Russia operates and how they got the atom bomb. Not by independent research, but from America from traitors within our own ranks.”

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• FILM ABOUT THE EXECUTION OF JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBERG

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Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 25, 1915 – June 19, 1953) and Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) were American communists who were convicted and executed on June 19, 1953, for conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war. Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the only execution of civilians for espionage in United States history

 

FIRST ANNOUNCER:

“Here is a special broadcast on the scene of Sing Sing Prison where the Rosenbergs have just been executed.

 

SECOND ANNOUNCER:

“Julius and Ethel Rosenberg have gone to the electric chair. First to go into the death chamber was Julius Rosenberg. He wore an impassive expression on his face. He walked in slowly. He was preceded by a rabbi, who was chanting the Twenty-third Psalm which everyone knows very well. He proceeded immediately over to the chair. He didn’t say a word to anyone, hardly glanced at anyone. He sat down in the chair, the straps were applied, and the first jolt of electricity was sent through his body at 8:04 tonight.

 

THIRD ANNOUNCER:

“She died a lot harder. When it appeared that she had received enough electricity to kill an ordinary person and had received the exact amount that had killed her husband the doctors went over and pulled down the cheap, prison dress – a little dark green, printed job – and placed the stetho…stetho…I can’t say it…placed the stethoscope to her then looked around, looked at each other dumbfounded and seemed surprised that she was not dead. Believing she was dead the attendants had taken off the ghastly strappings and electrodes and black belts ands so forth. These had to be readjusted again and she was given more electricity which started again. A ghastly plume of smoke rose from her head and went up against the skylight overhead. After two more of these jolts Ethel Rosenberg had met her maker. She’ll have a lot of explaining to do, too.”

SECOND ANNOUNCER:

“Immediately after the execution the bodies were taken away. There is nothing much more to report at this time. There have been no demonstrations. The heat has been extremely intense here. There’s a heavy pall and there has been an air of deep tension about this whole proceeding up here. But it is now all over. The newsmen have dispersed. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg have goon to the electric chair.

FIRST ANNOUNCER:

“That was an on-the-spot report on the execution tonight at Sing Sing Prison of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Now, The Great Day Show as we join Red Benson and the gang at the Marine Barracks in Brooklyn Navy Yard. The program is already in progress…

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• FLASHBACK TO 1950 ABOUT THE NEED FOR THE HYDROGEN BOMB

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SPEAKER:

“The question before us is this: Should the hydrogen bomb be built?”

FIRST WOMAN:

“All the world knows we Americans are constructive, not destructive. However distasteful this may be to us, there is no choice in the matter. Let us build the bomb.” 

FRANCISCAN PRIEST:

“It is my decided opinion that the United States of America should immediately begin construction of the H-bomb.”

SECOND WOMAN:

“I feel we must make the H-bomb.”

DOMINICAN PRIEST:

“It is my personal opinion that we should manufacture and produce the H-bomb in quantity.”

 MAN:

“The Russians will try it anyhow. And if they should learn the secrets of its manufacture before we do, the life and security of all freedom-loving peoples will be in danger.” 

FRANCISCAN PRIEST:

“I would like to add, however, that the United States of America should not necessarily use this bomb, but rather look upon it as a peaceful guardian and protector of the basic American doctrines of liberty and democracy against the obstacles of Red fascism’s materialistic and atheistic philosophies.”

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• NEWSREEL ABOUT A POSSIBLE RUSSIAN BOMB ATTACK

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NARRATOR:

“If the communist bloc does attack, our radar sites and observers will sound the alert.”

“Giant bombers will take to the air. Jet fighters will scream aloft. Fighters will account for some of the enemy, but some will get through to your home!”

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• PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT 

ANNOUNCER:

“In times of social crisis and tension. In times when changes come so thick and fast that the individual can no longer place himself in his group, when he knows something is wrong but doesn’t know what, when he feels himself a pawn, in times like these most men become highly suggestible. They listen eagerly for any voice which sounds authoritative. They listen eagerly for anyone who can tell them what is wrong, and what to do to right it – who can diagnose their troubles and prescribe a cure.”

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 EISENHOWER CAMPAIGN SONGS

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“Eisenhower, man of the hour,

Eisenhower, man of the hour,..”

            Ike, Ike

            We like Ike.

            We love the sunshine of your smile.

            We see our future in your eyes.

            You led our men to victory.

            You are the one we idolize.

            I’m going to give my vote to you…”

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• EISENHOWER ADDRESSING THE NATION

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Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II, and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45, from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.

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DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER:

“I don’t mean to say, and no one can say to you, that there are no dangers. Of course there are risks if we are not vigilant. But we do not have to be hysterical. We can be vigilant. We can be Americans. We can stand up and hold up our heads and say “America is the greatest force that God has allowed to exist on his footstool.” As such, it is up to us to lead this world to a peaceful and secure existence. And I assure you, we can do it.”

“Now if we first look at the strength of America, you and I know that it is the most productive nation on Earth, that we are richer by any standard of comparison to any other nation in the world. We know that we have great military strength, economic, intellectual.

“But all in all, this total strength is one of those things we call, and the world calls, unbelievable.”

“Now why, then, should we be worrying at times about what the world is doing to us? Actually, we see threats coming from all angles – internal and external – and we wonder what is going to happen to us individually and as a nation.”

“Now perhaps I can illustrate some of the reasons for this concern today. Now only a year ago, the hydrogen bomb was exploded in the Pacific. Last month, another series of tests was undertaken.”

“Now this transfer of power – this increase of power – from the mere musket and little cannon all the way to the hydrogen bomb in a single lifetime is indicative of the things that have happened to us.  They rather indicate how far the advances of science have outraced our social consciousness, how much more we have developed scientifically than we’re capable of handling emotionally and intellectually. So that is one of the reasons that we have this great concern, of which the hydrogen bomb is merely a dramatic symbol.”

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• LONGINES CHRONOSCOPE WITH GOVERNOR VAL PETERSON (TV broadcast – August 19, 1953)

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Frederick Valdemar Erastus Peterson (July 18, 1903 – October 17, 1983), also known as Val Peterson, was an American politician who served as the 26th Governor of Nebraska from 1947 to 1953; He was also director of the Federal Civil Defense Administration from 1953–1957

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VAL PETERSON:

“Anyone of intelligence and information is hoping and praying that we won’t have a third world war because in this age of atomic weapons a third world war would be a catastrophe for all mankind. And then finally, and this is quite significant, about 60% of the American people revealed through a study which we made through the University of Michigan a year ago that they believed the military could stop the atomic bombs from falling upon the United States. Well, I’m sorry to have to tell you that the military will tell you that as of today they cannot stop a successful Russian attack.”

LONGINES CHRONOSCOPE HOST:

“That can be corroborated rather dramatically. We didn’t plan it this way, Governor, but the floor manager  has just handed me a bulletin saying that the Russians have just exploded a hydrogen bomb.”

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• SENATOR LYNDON JOHNSON SPEECH

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Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–1963). He is one of only four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President.

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LYNDON JOHNSON:

“We must learn to live in a world in which we have the hydrogen bomb and the enemy of freedom has the hydrogen bomb. It can destroy any city. That means Forth Wroth and Dallas, Houston, San Antonio, Amarillo, El Paso, and yes, Johnson City.

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• THE HYDROGEN BOMB (song by Al Rogers and his Rocky Mountain Boys [1954]) 

            “Every dollar I make goes for taxes and bills

            Perhaps they’ve discovered the cure for my ills

            Ho, hi, ho the hydrogen bomb

            Bless it all, oh let it fall

            Ho hi, ho the hydrogen bomb

            Oh God have mercy on me”

The Castle Bravo Hydrogen BombTest, March 1, 1954

 

http://dgely.com/Bikini/Nuclear%20Testing/Operation%20Castle/Operation%20Castle%20Bravo%20Blast.htm

• FILM FOOTAGE ABOUT THE CASTLE BRAVO H-BOMB TEST

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U.S. ARMY SPOKESPERSON:

“The problem this time is especially acute because this entire area of the Pacific is subject to radiological fallout, and the area is inhabited by some 20,000 people.”

Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (January 31, 1896 – January 21, 1974) was an American businessman, philanthropist, public official, and naval officer. He was a major figure in the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power in the U.S. Strauss was appointed by President Truman as one of the first five Commissioners of the Atomic Energy Commission. 

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LEWIS L. STRAUSS:

“The meteorologists had predicted a wind condition that should have carried the fallout to the north of the group pf small atolls lying to the east of Bikini. The wind failed to follow the predictions, but shifted south of that line and the little islands of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Utirik were in the edge of the path of the fallout.

“The task force commander promptly evacuated all the people from these islands.  They were taken to the island of Kwajalein where we maintain a naval establishment., and there placed under continuous and constant medical supervision.”

 

“I visited them there last week. Today, a full month after the event, the medical staff on Kwanjalein have advised us that they anticipate no illness barring, of course, diseases which may be hereafter contracted. The 236 natives appear to me to be well and happy.”

 

“The survey aircraft carefully searched the area and reported no shipping. A Japanese trawler appears to have been missed by the search, but based on a statement attributed to her skipper to the effect that he saw the flash of the explosion and heard the concussion six minutes later, it must have been well within the danger area.” 

Daigo Fukuryū Maru (第五福竜丸, Lucky Dragon 5) was a Japanese tuna fishing boat which was exposed to and contaminated by nuclear fallout from the United States’ Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll on 1 March 1954. Aikichi Kuboyama, the boat’s chief radioman, died less than seven months later, on 23 September 1954, suffering from acute radiation syndrome. He is considered the first victim of the hydrogen bomb of Operation Castle Bravo.

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FIRST ANNOUNCER:

“At the time of the explosion, the tuna ship had been sailing far outside the designated safe area of a 75-mile radius. Three hours after the H-bomb had been detonated a downpour of radioactive ash descended on the Fortunate Dragon and its crew of 23. None of them knew the nature of the deadly snow. It was three days more before the ship and its contaminated crew and fishing catch sailed into port. By that time the men suffered from the beginning symptoms of deadly radiation poisoning.

Aikichi Kuboyama, radioman of the Lucky Dragon 5, in advanced stages of radiation sickness resulting from contamination from the Castle Bravo Test

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“By the time their illnesses had been properly diagnosed, the hot fish brought back in their holds had been sold into markets all over Japan. A panic ensued. Midnight burials of recent catches in the vicinity of the H-bomb explosion took place all over Japan. The bottom had dropped out of the fish market, and the Japanese chose to be without the staple food for a long time after the tragic affair.”

 

Tuna being inspected with Geiger counters for indications of radioactive contamination from Castle Bravo

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SECOND ANNOUNCER:

“Another by-product of this stupendous mid-Pacific blast unfolds in San Francisco where tuna fish, supposedly made radioactive during the tests, are scrutinized by federal agents armed with Geiger counters for signs of contamination.”

FDA inspectors with Geiger counters test seafood for radioactivity in the late 1950s, to ensure that fallout from atomic weapons testing has not affected the food supply.

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THIRD ANNOUNCER:

“Hot tea, anyone? That’s not an invitation. That’s a problem brewed for the Coast Guard and Customs by the arrival in Brooklyn of a cargo of Japanese tea slightly radioactive. Final conclusion: That the tea’s radioactivity is within safety limits, and not too hot to handle.”

 

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• U.S. ARMY INFORMATION FILM

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1ST MAN:

           “Warm.

2ND MAN:

“Yeah, June in January. That’s what I say. If you ask me I think it’s because of those atom bombs!

1ST MAN:

           “Yeah?”

 2ND MAN:

“Yeah, they’ve done some cockeyed things to the world. I think                                    they’ve knocked us south of the equator.

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3rD MAN:

“Just like I keep saying. Well, everyone’s so uncertain about everything. They don’t seem to know what’s going to happen.

1ST MAN:

           “Bourbon. Straight.”

WOMAN:

 “Well, as I was saying, I wouldn’t worry nearly as much about the atom bomb if it were to kill you right out. What scares me is that awful gas that deforms you.”

 3rD MAN:

“Yeah, that would be awful.”

WOMAN:

           “Yeah.”

 

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• “ATOMIC COCKTAIL” (Song by Slim Gaillard Quartette [1946]) 

            “It’s the drink that you don’t pour

            Now when you take one sip you won’t need anymore

            You’re small as a beetle or big as a whale-BOOM-Atomic Cocktail.”

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• OPERATION PLUMBBOB

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Operation Plumbbob (the “Priscilla” blast shown above) was a series of nuclear tests conducted between May 28 and October 7, 1957, at the Nevada Test Site. It was the biggest, longest, and most controversial test series in the continental United States. Almost 1,200 pigs were subjected to bio-medical experiments and blast-effects studies during Operation Plumbbob.

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Troop Test Smoky (August 7, 1957), part of Operation Plumbbob, became notorious in the 1970s due to the radiation exposures received by over three thousand servicemen who were brought in as part of the Desert Rock exercises to conduct maneuvers in the vicinity of ground zero shortly after the test. This led to Congressional inquiries and epidemiological evaluation of the affected veterans. A 1980 study of the 3224 participants found a significantly elevated number of leukemia cases.

 

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ARMY INDOCTRINATOR:

“Gentlemen, I want to welcome you to Camp Desert Rock. This will be your last briefing before you go to the forward and take part in an atomic detonation.”

 

“The tactical situation behind Troop Test Smokey is this: The mythical enemy which has landed on the coast of California has made a deep penetration close to supplies, storage, and missile launching installations in the vicinity of Las Vegas and Hoover Dam.

 “The tactical commander decided at this point to use an atomic weapon in his assault on the enemy. The mission of these men is to move as quickly as possible into the blasted area and exploi the breach in the enemy lines.”

 “You are here to participate in an atomic maneuver. This is not a haphazard maneuver. Careful planning started for it months back. Watched from a safe distance, this explosion is one of the most beautiful sights seen by man. You’re probably saying, “So it’s beautiful. What makes it so dangerous.?” Basically, there are only three things to worry about: blast, heat, and radiation.”

“Radiation. This is the one new effect obtained by the use of an atomic weapon. Truthfully, it’s the least important of the three effects as far as the soldier on the ground is concerned. You can’t see radiation, feel it, smell it, or taste it.”

 “Film badges and dosimeters issued to you enable the radiological safety monitor in your unit to read the amount of your exposure. The radiation level may be high, but if you follow orders you’ll be moved out in time to avoid sickness. Finally, if you receive enough gamma radiation to cause sterility or sever sickness, you’ll be killed by blast, flying debris, or heat anyway. Well, that’s the story. Don’t worry about yourselves. As far as the test is concerned, you’ll be fine.”

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DOWNLOAD A PDF VERSION OF THE ATOMIC CAFE TRANSCRIPT (PART II) HERE:

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Download PDF files of worksheets to be used in conjunction with The Atomic Cafe here:

Atomic Cafe Worksheet — Part I

Atomic Cafe Worksheet — Part II

Atomic Cafe Worksheet – Part III

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