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Archive for October, 2012

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Part II

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• ARMY TRAINING FILM:

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PRIVATE:

“Listen to what my mom said about how bad things are back home:

(Reading from a letter) ‘Everybody’s hoarding. Profiteers are getting fat contracts. Neighbors say politicians are using the war to their own advantage. All our chief atomic scientists are spies.’

And a lot more.”

SERGEANT:

“Now just take it with a grain of salt. Let me tell you how the commies plant propaganda back home. Some time ago, Mack, Johnny and I managed to get our last leave together in a big city…

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(Flashback to the past)

COMMUNIST SYMPATHIZER:

(Preaching on a street corner, pointing) “These poor boys will shed their innocent blood in a war that this country is provoking.”

AIR FORCE AIRMAN;

(Referring to the speaker) “Get a load of that!”

COMMUNIST SYMPATHIZER:

“Asiatic people all want the peaceful establishment of native regimes without the interference of United States troops. Communists don’t want war. War would be world suicide. Only communist countries can guarantee you peace!”

NAVY SAILOR:

“Why don’t you go live in a communist country then?”

AIR FORCE AIRMAN;

“You blow your top on a street corner there?”

NAVY SAILOR:

“You look pretty well off, sister, to be tearing down the country that gives you freedom of speech.””

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• “I’M NO COMMUNIST” (Song by Carson Robison [1952])

            We’re living in a country that’s the finest place of earth

            But some folks don’t appreciate this land that gave them birth

            I hear that up in Washington they’re having an awful fuss

            ‘Cause Communists and spies are making monkeys out of us.”

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• FILM FROM HUAC (HOUSE UN-AMAERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE)

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HUAC hearings circa 1952

CHAIRMAN:

“The question is, ‘Have you ever been a member of the communist party?’ You refuse to answer, is that correct?”

 

MAN GIVING TESTIMONY:

“I have told you I will tell my beliefs, my affiliations, and everything  else to the American public and they will know where I stand as they do from what I have written.”

CHAIRMAN:

“Stand away from the stand!”

MAN GIVING TESTIMONY:

“I have written for Americanism for many years, and I shall continue to fight for the Bill of Rights…”

CHAIRMAN:

“STAND AWAY FROM THE STAND! Officer, take this man away from the stand.”

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• “I’M NO COMMUNIST” [continued] (Song by Carson Robison [1952])

            “The bureaus and departments have been busy night and day

            They’re figuring out just how we gave our secrets all away

            And Congress has appointed a committee so they said

            To find out who’s American and who’s a low-down Red.”

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Hollowed out pumpkin supposedly used by communist infiltrators to pass secret documents, messages, etc.

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• FILM OF RICHARD NIXON REGARDING COMMUNIST SPIES

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Then Vice President (later President) Richard M. Nixon (January 9, 1913– April 22, 1994) was a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) during the 1950s and helped break the Alger Hiss spying case.

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RICHARD NIXON:           

“I’m holding in my hand a microfilm of very highly confidential secret State Department documents. These documents were fed out of the State Dept. over 10 years ago by communists who were employees of that department and who were interested in seeing that these documents were sent to the Soviet Union where the interests of the Soviet Union happened to be in conflict with those of the United States.”

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• “I’M NO COMMUNIST” [continued] (Song by Carson Robison [1952])

            “I’m no Communist, and I’ll you that right now

            I believe a man should own his own house and car and cow

            I like this private ownership, and I want to be left alone

            Let the government run its business and let me run my own.”

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• FILM OF SENATOR OWEN BREWSTER ON COMMUNIST SPYING

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Ralph Owen Brewster (February 22, 1888 – December 25, 1961) was an American politician from Maine. Brewster, a Republican, was solidly conservative. Brewster was a close confidant of the infamous communist hunter Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin.

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OWEN BREWSTER:

“Our education is proceeding apace as to how Russia operates and how they got the atom bomb. Not by independent research, but from America from traitors within our own ranks.”

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• FILM ABOUT THE EXECUTION OF JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBERG

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Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 25, 1915 – June 19, 1953) and Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) were American communists who were convicted and executed on June 19, 1953, for conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war. Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the only execution of civilians for espionage in United States history

 

FIRST ANNOUNCER:

“Here is a special broadcast on the scene of Sing Sing Prison where the Rosenbergs have just been executed.

 

SECOND ANNOUNCER:

“Julius and Ethel Rosenberg have gone to the electric chair. First to go into the death chamber was Julius Rosenberg. He wore an impassive expression on his face. He walked in slowly. He was preceded by a rabbi, who was chanting the Twenty-third Psalm which everyone knows very well. He proceeded immediately over to the chair. He didn’t say a word to anyone, hardly glanced at anyone. He sat down in the chair, the straps were applied, and the first jolt of electricity was sent through his body at 8:04 tonight.

 

THIRD ANNOUNCER:

“She died a lot harder. When it appeared that she had received enough electricity to kill an ordinary person and had received the exact amount that had killed her husband the doctors went over and pulled down the cheap, prison dress – a little dark green, printed job – and placed the stetho…stetho…I can’t say it…placed the stethoscope to her then looked around, looked at each other dumbfounded and seemed surprised that she was not dead. Believing she was dead the attendants had taken off the ghastly strappings and electrodes and black belts ands so forth. These had to be readjusted again and she was given more electricity which started again. A ghastly plume of smoke rose from her head and went up against the skylight overhead. After two more of these jolts Ethel Rosenberg had met her maker. She’ll have a lot of explaining to do, too.”

SECOND ANNOUNCER:

“Immediately after the execution the bodies were taken away. There is nothing much more to report at this time. There have been no demonstrations. The heat has been extremely intense here. There’s a heavy pall and there has been an air of deep tension about this whole proceeding up here. But it is now all over. The newsmen have dispersed. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg have goon to the electric chair.

FIRST ANNOUNCER:

“That was an on-the-spot report on the execution tonight at Sing Sing Prison of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Now, The Great Day Show as we join Red Benson and the gang at the Marine Barracks in Brooklyn Navy Yard. The program is already in progress…

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• FLASHBACK TO 1950 ABOUT THE NEED FOR THE HYDROGEN BOMB

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SPEAKER:

“The question before us is this: Should the hydrogen bomb be built?”

FIRST WOMAN:

“All the world knows we Americans are constructive, not destructive. However distasteful this may be to us, there is no choice in the matter. Let us build the bomb.” 

FRANCISCAN PRIEST:

“It is my decided opinion that the United States of America should immediately begin construction of the H-bomb.”

SECOND WOMAN:

“I feel we must make the H-bomb.”

DOMINICAN PRIEST:

“It is my personal opinion that we should manufacture and produce the H-bomb in quantity.”

 MAN:

“The Russians will try it anyhow. And if they should learn the secrets of its manufacture before we do, the life and security of all freedom-loving peoples will be in danger.” 

FRANCISCAN PRIEST:

“I would like to add, however, that the United States of America should not necessarily use this bomb, but rather look upon it as a peaceful guardian and protector of the basic American doctrines of liberty and democracy against the obstacles of Red fascism’s materialistic and atheistic philosophies.”

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• NEWSREEL ABOUT A POSSIBLE RUSSIAN BOMB ATTACK

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NARRATOR:

“If the communist bloc does attack, our radar sites and observers will sound the alert.”

“Giant bombers will take to the air. Jet fighters will scream aloft. Fighters will account for some of the enemy, but some will get through to your home!”

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• PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT 

ANNOUNCER:

“In times of social crisis and tension. In times when changes come so thick and fast that the individual can no longer place himself in his group, when he knows something is wrong but doesn’t know what, when he feels himself a pawn, in times like these most men become highly suggestible. They listen eagerly for any voice which sounds authoritative. They listen eagerly for anyone who can tell them what is wrong, and what to do to right it – who can diagnose their troubles and prescribe a cure.”

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 EISENHOWER CAMPAIGN SONGS

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“Eisenhower, man of the hour,

Eisenhower, man of the hour,..”

            Ike, Ike

            We like Ike.

            We love the sunshine of your smile.

            We see our future in your eyes.

            You led our men to victory.

            You are the one we idolize.

            I’m going to give my vote to you…”

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• EISENHOWER ADDRESSING THE NATION

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Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II, and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45, from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.

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DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER:

“I don’t mean to say, and no one can say to you, that there are no dangers. Of course there are risks if we are not vigilant. But we do not have to be hysterical. We can be vigilant. We can be Americans. We can stand up and hold up our heads and say “America is the greatest force that God has allowed to exist on his footstool.” As such, it is up to us to lead this world to a peaceful and secure existence. And I assure you, we can do it.”

“Now if we first look at the strength of America, you and I know that it is the most productive nation on Earth, that we are richer by any standard of comparison to any other nation in the world. We know that we have great military strength, economic, intellectual.

“But all in all, this total strength is one of those things we call, and the world calls, unbelievable.”

“Now why, then, should we be worrying at times about what the world is doing to us? Actually, we see threats coming from all angles – internal and external – and we wonder what is going to happen to us individually and as a nation.”

“Now perhaps I can illustrate some of the reasons for this concern today. Now only a year ago, the hydrogen bomb was exploded in the Pacific. Last month, another series of tests was undertaken.”

“Now this transfer of power – this increase of power – from the mere musket and little cannon all the way to the hydrogen bomb in a single lifetime is indicative of the things that have happened to us.  They rather indicate how far the advances of science have outraced our social consciousness, how much more we have developed scientifically than we’re capable of handling emotionally and intellectually. So that is one of the reasons that we have this great concern, of which the hydrogen bomb is merely a dramatic symbol.”

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• LONGINES CHRONOSCOPE WITH GOVERNOR VAL PETERSON (TV broadcast – August 19, 1953)

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Frederick Valdemar Erastus Peterson (July 18, 1903 – October 17, 1983), also known as Val Peterson, was an American politician who served as the 26th Governor of Nebraska from 1947 to 1953; He was also director of the Federal Civil Defense Administration from 1953–1957

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VAL PETERSON:

“Anyone of intelligence and information is hoping and praying that we won’t have a third world war because in this age of atomic weapons a third world war would be a catastrophe for all mankind. And then finally, and this is quite significant, about 60% of the American people revealed through a study which we made through the University of Michigan a year ago that they believed the military could stop the atomic bombs from falling upon the United States. Well, I’m sorry to have to tell you that the military will tell you that as of today they cannot stop a successful Russian attack.”

LONGINES CHRONOSCOPE HOST:

“That can be corroborated rather dramatically. We didn’t plan it this way, Governor, but the floor manager  has just handed me a bulletin saying that the Russians have just exploded a hydrogen bomb.”

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• SENATOR LYNDON JOHNSON SPEECH

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Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–1963). He is one of only four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President.

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LYNDON JOHNSON:

“We must learn to live in a world in which we have the hydrogen bomb and the enemy of freedom has the hydrogen bomb. It can destroy any city. That means Forth Wroth and Dallas, Houston, San Antonio, Amarillo, El Paso, and yes, Johnson City.

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• THE HYDROGEN BOMB (song by Al Rogers and his Rocky Mountain Boys [1954]) 

            “Every dollar I make goes for taxes and bills

            Perhaps they’ve discovered the cure for my ills

            Ho, hi, ho the hydrogen bomb

            Bless it all, oh let it fall

            Ho hi, ho the hydrogen bomb

            Oh God have mercy on me”

The Castle Bravo Hydrogen BombTest, March 1, 1954

 

http://dgely.com/Bikini/Nuclear%20Testing/Operation%20Castle/Operation%20Castle%20Bravo%20Blast.htm

• FILM FOOTAGE ABOUT THE CASTLE BRAVO H-BOMB TEST

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U.S. ARMY SPOKESPERSON:

“The problem this time is especially acute because this entire area of the Pacific is subject to radiological fallout, and the area is inhabited by some 20,000 people.”

Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (January 31, 1896 – January 21, 1974) was an American businessman, philanthropist, public official, and naval officer. He was a major figure in the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power in the U.S. Strauss was appointed by President Truman as one of the first five Commissioners of the Atomic Energy Commission. 

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LEWIS L. STRAUSS:

“The meteorologists had predicted a wind condition that should have carried the fallout to the north of the group pf small atolls lying to the east of Bikini. The wind failed to follow the predictions, but shifted south of that line and the little islands of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Utirik were in the edge of the path of the fallout.

“The task force commander promptly evacuated all the people from these islands.  They were taken to the island of Kwajalein where we maintain a naval establishment., and there placed under continuous and constant medical supervision.”

 

“I visited them there last week. Today, a full month after the event, the medical staff on Kwanjalein have advised us that they anticipate no illness barring, of course, diseases which may be hereafter contracted. The 236 natives appear to me to be well and happy.”

 

“The survey aircraft carefully searched the area and reported no shipping. A Japanese trawler appears to have been missed by the search, but based on a statement attributed to her skipper to the effect that he saw the flash of the explosion and heard the concussion six minutes later, it must have been well within the danger area.” 

Daigo Fukuryū Maru (第五福竜丸, Lucky Dragon 5) was a Japanese tuna fishing boat which was exposed to and contaminated by nuclear fallout from the United States’ Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll on 1 March 1954. Aikichi Kuboyama, the boat’s chief radioman, died less than seven months later, on 23 September 1954, suffering from acute radiation syndrome. He is considered the first victim of the hydrogen bomb of Operation Castle Bravo.

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FIRST ANNOUNCER:

“At the time of the explosion, the tuna ship had been sailing far outside the designated safe area of a 75-mile radius. Three hours after the H-bomb had been detonated a downpour of radioactive ash descended on the Fortunate Dragon and its crew of 23. None of them knew the nature of the deadly snow. It was three days more before the ship and its contaminated crew and fishing catch sailed into port. By that time the men suffered from the beginning symptoms of deadly radiation poisoning.

Aikichi Kuboyama, radioman of the Lucky Dragon 5, in advanced stages of radiation sickness resulting from contamination from the Castle Bravo Test

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“By the time their illnesses had been properly diagnosed, the hot fish brought back in their holds had been sold into markets all over Japan. A panic ensued. Midnight burials of recent catches in the vicinity of the H-bomb explosion took place all over Japan. The bottom had dropped out of the fish market, and the Japanese chose to be without the staple food for a long time after the tragic affair.”

 

Tuna being inspected with Geiger counters for indications of radioactive contamination from Castle Bravo

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SECOND ANNOUNCER:

“Another by-product of this stupendous mid-Pacific blast unfolds in San Francisco where tuna fish, supposedly made radioactive during the tests, are scrutinized by federal agents armed with Geiger counters for signs of contamination.”

FDA inspectors with Geiger counters test seafood for radioactivity in the late 1950s, to ensure that fallout from atomic weapons testing has not affected the food supply.

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THIRD ANNOUNCER:

“Hot tea, anyone? That’s not an invitation. That’s a problem brewed for the Coast Guard and Customs by the arrival in Brooklyn of a cargo of Japanese tea slightly radioactive. Final conclusion: That the tea’s radioactivity is within safety limits, and not too hot to handle.”

 

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• U.S. ARMY INFORMATION FILM

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1ST MAN:

           “Warm.

2ND MAN:

“Yeah, June in January. That’s what I say. If you ask me I think it’s because of those atom bombs!

1ST MAN:

           “Yeah?”

 2ND MAN:

“Yeah, they’ve done some cockeyed things to the world. I think                                    they’ve knocked us south of the equator.

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3rD MAN:

“Just like I keep saying. Well, everyone’s so uncertain about everything. They don’t seem to know what’s going to happen.

1ST MAN:

           “Bourbon. Straight.”

WOMAN:

 “Well, as I was saying, I wouldn’t worry nearly as much about the atom bomb if it were to kill you right out. What scares me is that awful gas that deforms you.”

 3rD MAN:

“Yeah, that would be awful.”

WOMAN:

           “Yeah.”

 

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• “ATOMIC COCKTAIL” (Song by Slim Gaillard Quartette [1946]) 

            “It’s the drink that you don’t pour

            Now when you take one sip you won’t need anymore

            You’re small as a beetle or big as a whale-BOOM-Atomic Cocktail.”

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• OPERATION PLUMBBOB

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Operation Plumbbob (the “Priscilla” blast shown above) was a series of nuclear tests conducted between May 28 and October 7, 1957, at the Nevada Test Site. It was the biggest, longest, and most controversial test series in the continental United States. Almost 1,200 pigs were subjected to bio-medical experiments and blast-effects studies during Operation Plumbbob.

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Troop Test Smoky (August 7, 1957), part of Operation Plumbbob, became notorious in the 1970s due to the radiation exposures received by over three thousand servicemen who were brought in as part of the Desert Rock exercises to conduct maneuvers in the vicinity of ground zero shortly after the test. This led to Congressional inquiries and epidemiological evaluation of the affected veterans. A 1980 study of the 3224 participants found a significantly elevated number of leukemia cases.

 

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ARMY INDOCTRINATOR:

“Gentlemen, I want to welcome you to Camp Desert Rock. This will be your last briefing before you go to the forward and take part in an atomic detonation.”

 

“The tactical situation behind Troop Test Smokey is this: The mythical enemy which has landed on the coast of California has made a deep penetration close to supplies, storage, and missile launching installations in the vicinity of Las Vegas and Hoover Dam.

 “The tactical commander decided at this point to use an atomic weapon in his assault on the enemy. The mission of these men is to move as quickly as possible into the blasted area and exploi the breach in the enemy lines.”

 “You are here to participate in an atomic maneuver. This is not a haphazard maneuver. Careful planning started for it months back. Watched from a safe distance, this explosion is one of the most beautiful sights seen by man. You’re probably saying, “So it’s beautiful. What makes it so dangerous.?” Basically, there are only three things to worry about: blast, heat, and radiation.”

“Radiation. This is the one new effect obtained by the use of an atomic weapon. Truthfully, it’s the least important of the three effects as far as the soldier on the ground is concerned. You can’t see radiation, feel it, smell it, or taste it.”

 “Film badges and dosimeters issued to you enable the radiological safety monitor in your unit to read the amount of your exposure. The radiation level may be high, but if you follow orders you’ll be moved out in time to avoid sickness. Finally, if you receive enough gamma radiation to cause sterility or sever sickness, you’ll be killed by blast, flying debris, or heat anyway. Well, that’s the story. Don’t worry about yourselves. As far as the test is concerned, you’ll be fine.”

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DOWNLOAD A PDF VERSION OF THE ATOMIC CAFE TRANSCRIPT (PART II) HERE:

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Download PDF files of worksheets to be used in conjunction with The Atomic Cafe here:

Atomic Cafe Worksheet — Part I

Atomic Cafe Worksheet — Part II

Atomic Cafe Worksheet – Part III

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Nuclear Scavenger Hunt

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Alamogordo, New Mexico – The first atomic bomb in history was detonated at the Alamogordo Test range on July 16, 1945. The site of the explosion, called trinity Site, is located on property owned by the present-day White Sands Missile range.

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arms race – A competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or superior military technology in a technological escalation. The arms race that characterized the 20th Century refers to the massive military build-up, especially of nuclear weapons, by both the Soviet Union and the United States in an effort to gain military superiority.

 

Bikini Atoll – (also known as Pikinni Atoll) An uninhabited 6.0-square-kilometer atoll in one of the Micronesian Islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of Republic of the Marshall Islands. It consists of 36 islands surrounding a 594.2-square-kilometer lagoon. As part of the Pacific Proving Grounds it was the site of more than 20 nuclear weapons tests between 1946 and 1958, including the first test of a practical dry fuel hydrogen bomb in 1952.

 

bomb shelter – A chamber (often underground) reinforced against bombing and provided with food and living facilities; used during air raids. During the Cold War, many Americans raced to build bomb shelters to protect themselves and their families from the effects of a potential nuclear attack by the Soviet Union.

 

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) – In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europe’s largest single-issue peace campaign. As well as campaigning against military actions that may result in the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons, they are also in favor of nuclear disarmament by all countries and tighter international regulation through treaties such as the NPT.

 

capitalism – An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods.

 

civil defense – An effort to prepare civilians for military attack. Since the end of the Cold War the concept has been replaced by a more general intent to protect the civilian population in times of peace as well as in times of war. The new concept is described by a number of terms, each of which has its own specific shade of meaning. Terms include: Crisis Management, Emergency Management, Emergency Preparedness, Contingency Planning and Civil Protection.

 

Cold War – A term used to describe the shifting struggle for power and prestige between the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the end of World War II until 1989. Of worldwide proportions, the conflict was tacit in the ideological differences between communism and capitalist democracy.

 

communism – A political system derived largely from the theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (The Communist Manifesto, 1848) in which all wealth is owned collectively and shared equally among all members of society. The People’s Republic of China is one of the few remaining Communist countries today.

 

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) – Bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for civilian or military purposes. Arms control advocates had campaigned for the adoption of a treaty banning all nuclear explosions since the early 1950s, when public concern was aroused as a result of radioactive fall-out from atmospheric nuclear tests and the escalating arms race. However, within the context of the Cold War, skepticism in the capability to verify compliance with a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty posed a major obstacle to any agreement. On 13 October 1999 the United States Senate rejected ratification of the CTBT.

 

cruise missile – A guided missile that flies to its target close to the earth’s surface. They can be launched from aircraft, ships, submarines or land sites. A cruise uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. A cruise missile is, in essence, a flying bomb.

 

Cuban Missile Crisis – A major cold war confrontation in 1962 between the United States and the Soviet Union. After the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the USSR increased its support of Fidel Castro’s Cuban regime, and in the summer of 1962, Nikita Khrushchev secretly decided to install ballistic missiles in Cuba. When U.S. reconnaissance flights revealed the clandestine construction of missile launching sites, President Kennedy publicly denounced (Oct. 22, 1962) the Soviet actions. He imposed a naval blockade on Cuba and declared that any missile launched from Cuba would warrant a full-scale retaliatory attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. On Oct. 24, Russian ships carrying missiles to Cuba turned back, and when Khrushchev agreed (Oct. 28) to withdraw the missiles and dismantle the missile sites, the crisis ended as suddenly as it had begun. The United States ended its blockade on Nov. 20, and by the end of the year the missiles and bombers were removed from Cuba. The United States, in return, pledged not to invade Cuba, and subsequently secretly removed ballistic missiles it had placed in Turkey.

 

détente – A French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. Generally, it may be applied to any international situation where previously hostile nations not involved in an open war de-escalate tensions through diplomacy and confidence building measures. However, it is primarily used in reference to the general reduction in the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and a thawing of the Cold War, occurring from the late 1960s until the start of the 1980s.

 

deterrence – A military strategy developed after and used throughout the Cold War and current times. It is especially relevant with regard to the use of nuclear weapons, and figures prominently on current United States foreign policy regarding the development of nuclear technology in North Korea and Iran. Deterrence by punishment is a strategy by which governments threaten an immense retaliation if attacked. Aggressors are deterred if they do not wish to suffer such damage as a result of an aggressive action. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) is a form of this strategy, which used by the US to characterize relations between the United States and Soviet Union, although the Soviet Union did not in fact adhere to MAD and was prepared to fight a full scale nuclear and conventional war

 

Domino Theory – The domino theory was a 20th Century foreign policy theory that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect. The domino effect indicates that some change, small in itself, will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end.

 

duck and cover – A suggested method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear detonation which the United States government taught to generations of United States school children from the late 1940s into the 1980s. This was supposed to protect them in the event of an unexpected nuclear attack which, they were told, could come at any time without warning. Immediately after they saw a flash (which would be the last thing they would ever see), they had to stop what they were doing and get on the ground under some cover — such as a table, or at least next to a wall — and assume the fetal position, lying face-down and covering their heads with their hands. Critics have said that this training would be of little, if any, help in the event of thermonuclear war, and had little effect other than promoting a state of unease and paranoia.

 

Einstein, Albert – The physicist Albert Einstein did not directly participate in the invention of the atomic bomb, but he was instrumental in facilitating its development. In 1905, as part of his Special Theory of Relativity, he made the intriguing point that a large amount of energy could be released from a small amount of matter. This was expressed by the equation E=mc2 (energy = mass times the speed of light squared). The atomic bomb would clearly illustrate this principle. Einstein originally considered himself to be a pacifist. In 1929, he publicly declared that if a war broke out he would “unconditionally refuse to do war service, direct or indirect… regardless of how the cause of the war should be judged.” His position would change in 1933, however, as the result of Adolf Hitler’s ascent to power in Germany. While still promoting peace, Einstein no longer fit his previous self-description of being an “absolute pacifist”. Einstein’s greatest role in the invention of the atomic bomb was signing a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt urging that the bomb be built.

 

Enola Gay – The B-29 Superfortress bomber that dropped “Little Boy”, the first atomic bomb ever used in war, when the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) attacked Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945, just before the end of World War II. Because of its roles in the atomic bombings of Japan, its name has been synonymous with the bombings themselves. It was named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot.

 

Evil empire – The phrase evil empire was applied to the former Soviet Union by U.S. President Ronald Reagan and American conservatives, particularly “hawks — a term used to describe those preferring an aggressive, hard-line stance that favored matching and exceeding the former Soviet Union’s strategic and global military capabilities. Some contend that this depiction of the Soviet Union, in the mid to late-1980s, as “evil” marked a turning point in the Cold War, affording the U.S. a moral high ground that allowed it to take vastly more aggressive steps to deter and “rollback” the former Soviet Union’s significant engagement in global affairs. Critics of the phrase, however, saw it as an escalation of anti-Soviet rhetoric that was further dividing the two superpowers, with potentially serious military consequences, including the risk of nuclear war.

 

Fifth Columnist – A clandestine subversive organization working within a country to further an invading enemy’s military and political aims.

 

fission – The splitting of atoms, which results in the release of large amounts of energy. Fission occurs naturally or when an atom’s nucleus is bombarded by neutrons.

 

fusion – The process whereby the nuclei of lighter elements, especially the isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium ) combine to form the nucleus of a heavier element accompanied by the release of substantial amounts of energy.

 

Hiroshima and Nagasaki – The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America under US President Harry S. Truman. After six months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities, on August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon “Little Boy” was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed on August 9, 1945 by the detonation of the “Fat Man” nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. These are the only uses of nuclear weapons in warfare. As many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki may have died from the bombings by the end of 1945, roughly half on the days of the bombings. Since then, thousands more have died from injuries or illness due to radiation. In both cities, the overwhelming majority of the dead were civilians.

 

hotline – a point-to-point communications link in which a call is automatically directed to the pre-selected destination without any additional action by the user when the end instrument goes off-hook. The White House/Kremlin hotline during the Cold War, known as the red telephone, which was established on June 20, 1963, in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

 

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having communist ties. Through its power to subpoena witness and hold people in contempt of Congress, HUAC often pressured witnesses to surrender names and other information that could lead to the apprehension of Communists and Communist sympathizers. Committee members often branded witnesses as “red” if they refused to comply or hesitated in answering committee questions.

 

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. It was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. In 1953, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower envisioned the creation of this international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy, in his “Atoms for Peace” speech before the UN General Assembly. The organization and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize announced on 7 October 2005. Media often refer to the IAEA as “the UN’s Nuclear Watchdog”. While this describes one of the Agency’s roles, it is by no means the only one. The IAEA has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria.

 

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) – A long-range (greater than 5,500 km or 3,500 miles) ballistic missile typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery, that is, delivering one or more nuclear warheads. Due to their great range and firepower, in an all-out nuclear war, submarine and land-based ICBMs would carry most of the destructive force, with nuclear-armed bombers the remainder. ICBMs are differentiated by having greater range and speed than other ballistic missiles: intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs), short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs), and the newly-named theatre ballistic missiles. All five of the nations with permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council have operational ICBM systems: all have submarine-launched missiles, and Russia, the United States and China also have land-based missiles.

 

Iron Curtain – The “Iron Curtain” was the boundary which symbolically, ideologically, and physically divided Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II until the end of the Cold War, roughly 1945 to 1991. The first recorded use of the term was in 1920 by Ethel Snowden in her book Through Bolshevik Russia. German politician and Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels was the first to refer to an “Iron Curtain” coming down across Europe after World War II, in a manifesto he published in the German newspaper Das Reich in February 1945. The term was not widely used until March 5, 1946, when it was popularized by Winston Churchill in his “Sinews of Peace” address. While the Iron Curtain was in place, certain countries of Eastern Europe and many in Central Europe (except West Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Austria) were under the political influence of the Soviet Union. Indeed the Central European states to the east of the Curtain were frequently regarded as being part of Eastern Europe, rather than Central Europe.

 

Los Alamos, New Mexico – Los Alamos (from the Spanish: Los Álamos, meaning “The Cottonwoods”) The home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which was founded to undertake the Manhattan Project.

 

The Lucky Dragon 5 – (Daigo Fukuryu¯ Maru) was a Japanese tuna fishing boat, which was exposed to and contaminated by nuclear fallout from the United States’ Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954. Kuboyama Aikichi, the boat’s chief radioman, died a half a year later, on September 23, 1954, suffering from acute radiation syndrome. He is considered the first victim of the hydrogen bomb

 

Manhattan Project – The project to develop the first nuclear weapon (atomic bomb) during World War II by the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1941–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The project succeeded in developing and detonating three nuclear weapons in 1945: a test detonation of a plutonium implosion bomb on July 16 (the Trinity test) near Alamogordo, New Mexico; an enriched uranium bomb code-named “Little Boy” on August 6 over Hiroshima, Japan; and a second plutonium bomb, code-named “Fat Man” on August 9 over Nagasaki, Japan.

 

McCarthyism – The practice of publicizing accusations of political disloyalty or subversion with insufficient regard to evidence. Named after Senator Joseph McCarthy, an anti-communist crusader of the early 1950s, who remains one of the most controversial and reviled American politicians of the 20th century.

 

megaton – A unit of energy used to describe nuclear warheads. The same amount energy as 1 million tons of TNT.

 

Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) – A doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use of the very same weapons. The strategy is effectively a form of Nash Equilibrium, in which both sides are attempting to avoid their worst possible outcome – nuclear annihilation.

 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance, or the Western Alliance) is a military alliance, established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on April 4, 1949. With headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, the organization established a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

 

Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) – The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT or NNPT) is an international treaty to limit the spread of nuclear weapons, opened for signature on July 1, 1968. There are currently 189 states party to the treaty, five of which have nuclear weapons: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the People’s Republic of China. Only four nations are not signatories: India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea. India and Pakistan both possess and have openly tested nuclear bombs. Israel has had a policy of opacity regarding its own nuclear weapons program. North Korea ratified the treaty, violated it, and later withdrew. The treaty was proposed by Ireland, and Finland was the first to sign. The signing parties decided by consensus to extend the treaty indefinitely and without conditions upon meeting in New York City on May 11, 1995. The NPT consists of a preamble and eleven articles. Although the concept of “pillars” appears nowhere in the NPT, the treaty is nevertheless sometimes interpreted as having three pillarsnon-proliferationdisarmament, and the right to peacefully use nuclear technology.

 

nuclear umbrella – A “nuclear umbrella” refers to security derived through military protection from a nuclear power. By coming under a nuclear umbrella, countries allied with a nuclear power hope to deter nuclear attack from other countries.

 

Oppenheimer, Robert – J. Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. Known as “the father of the atomic bomb,” Oppenheimer lamented the weapon’s killing power after it was used to destroy the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

 

pre-emptive strike – a military attack designed to prevent, or reduce the impact of, an anticipated attack from an enemy

 

proliferation – Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons production technology and knowledge to nations that do not already have such capabilities.

 

Red Scare – In US history, the term Red Scare denotes two distinct periods of strong anti-communism: the First Red Scare, from 1917 to 1920, and the Second Red Scare, from 1947 to 1957. The Scares were characterized by the fear that communism would upset the capitalist social order in the United States; the First red Scare was about worker revolution and Political radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused on (national and foreign) communists infiltrating the Federal Government.

 

retaliation – An action taken in return for an injury or offense

 

Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel – American communists who were executed in 1953 after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history.

 

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) – The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and the United States–the Cold War superpowers–on the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II. SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement, but also known as Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled. SALT II later became START. Negotiations started in Helsinki, Finland, in 1969 and focused on limiting the two countries’ stocks of nuclear weapons. These treaties have led to START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). START I (a 1991 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union) and START II (a 1993 agreement between the United States and Russia) placed specific caps on each side’s number of nuclear weapons.

 

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) a.k.a. “Star Wars” – The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983 to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD). Though it was never fully developed or deployed, the research and technologies of SDI paved the way for some anti-ballistic missile systems of today. The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to the Strategic Defense Initiative. It gained the popular name Star Wars after the 1977 movie by George Lucas. Under the administration of President Bill Clinton in 1993, its name was changed to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and its emphasis was shifted from national missile defense to theater missile defense; from global to regional coverage. BMDO was later renamed to the Missile Defense Agency.

        

Teller, Edward – Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as “the father of the hydrogen bomb.” Teller emigrated to the United States in the 1930s, and was an early member of the Manhattan Project charged with developing the first atomic bombs. During this time he made a serious push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well, but these were deferred until after World War II.

 

Truman, Harry S – Harry Truman became president of the United States on April 12, 1945 upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. During Truman’s presidency Germany surrendered (May 8, 1945) and Japan surrendered (Aug. 14, 1945), ending World War II. The U.S., with Truman’s approval, dropped an atomic bomb on the people of Hiroshima on Aug. 6 and one on Nagasaki on Aug. 9, 1945. As more information has become available regarding the Japanese peace effort, the Japanese fear of losing their emperor (whom they believed was a god), and U.S. advisors who offered other methods of winning the war, the debate has grown over whether the atomic bombings were necessary to save lives and win the war. Truman always staunchly defended the atomic bombings. Shortening the war, saving American lives, and revenge are the main reasons he gave for using them. In his first public explanation (Aug. 6, 1945, just after Hiroshima was a-bombed), he said: “The Japanese began the war from the air at Pearl Harbor. They have been repaid many fold.” On Aug. 9, after Nagasaki was a-bombed, Truman made another public statement on why the atomic bombs were used: “Having found the bomb we have used it. We have used it against those who attacked us without warning at Pearl Harbor, against those who have starved and beaten and executed American prisoners of war, against those who have abandoned all pretense of obeying international laws of warfare. We have used it in order to shorten the agony of war, in order to save the lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans.”

 

University of Chicago – Italian physicist Enrico Fermi managed the University of Chicago reactor, called Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1). Nobel Prize-winner Fermi had fled Fascist Europe. On the afternoon of December 2, 1942, it happened. Under the abandoned west stands of Stagg Field, the first controlled nuclear reaction occurred. Humankind had controlled energy released from the nucleus of the atom.

 

Warsaw Pact – The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty Organization, officially named the Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance (Russian: Dogovor o druzhbe, sotrudnichestve i vzaimnoy pomoshchi), was a military alliance of socialist states in Central and Eastern Europe. It was established on 14 May 1955 in Warsaw, Poland. While Soviet Union claimed to counter the potential threat from the NATO alliance and as retaliation due to the integration of a “re-militarized” West Germany into NATO on 9 May 1955 via ratification of the Paris Peace Treaties, the organization de facto served as a tool for keeping control over countries taken over after Second World War by the Soviets and to intervene military against any attempts the other states took to free themselves of the political hegemony of their own Communist Parties. The Pact lasted throughout the Cold War until certain member nations began withdrawing in 1989, following the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and political changes in the Soviet Union. The treaty was signed in Warsaw on May 14, 1955 and official copies were made in Russian, Polish, Czech and German.

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